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Foraging honeybees trained with two targets different in odor, one of which always contains a 20-jd drop of 50 sucrose solution and the other a 5-/nl drop of the same solution, quickly develop a preference for the 20-/xl odor, a preference that is most simply explained in terms of a stronger association with sucrose (Couvillon, Lee, Bitterman, 1991).. Because the flying animals seem to detect 20-jtl drops more readily than 5-/J drops (Walker, Lee, Bitterman, 1990), it might be thought that the stronger association is due to closer contiguity between the perception of the 20-jul odor and the initial taste of sucrose (the delay hypothesis), but that possibility can be discounted on the basis that the preference develops even when the locations of the drops are clearly marked (Lee Bitterman, 1990b).. For the Simultaneous group (n - 25), the 3-s CS was turned on immediately after the US made contact with the extended proboscis because it was possible (given our rather crude manual procedure) that slightly positive intervals might occasionally be generated by accident in efforts at strictly simultaneous presentation, the CS was deliberately withheld until the extended proboscis made contact with the sucrose solution.. There was also a Forward group, the purpose of which, as in Experiment 2, was to check on the health of the animals in each squad—that is, to guard against the possibility that failure of the Simultaneous group to respond to S+ on test trials might 1 L"CO o Ld 1 n 1-0- °-8- •-• FORWARD o-e SIMULTANEOUS UNPAIRED 0.6- 0.4- m m n 0 0.2- O "• 0 2 4 6 8 TRIALS Figure 4.. (There was no response by the animals of either group on the 4 test trials with S—.) Evidence of facilitation would have provided direct support for the duration account of the amount-of-reward results for free-flying foragers as compared with the immediate-evaluation account (which gives no reason to expect greater associative strength in the Overlap group than in the No Overlap group)..
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